Brief synopsis of the amendments to the U.S. Constitution:
1st – Protects freedom of religion, speech and the press and provides the right to assemble and petition the government.
2nd – Protects the right to keep and bear arms.
3rd – Prohibits the forced quartering of soldiers.
4th – Prohibits unreasonable search and seizures and sets requirements for search warrants based on probable cause.
5th – Sets the rules for endictment by a grand jury, eminent domain, protects the right to due process and prohibits self incrimination and double jeapordy.
6th – Protects the right to a fair and speedy trial by jury and the right to be notified of accusations.
7th – Provides the right to trial by jury in certain civil cases according to common law.
8th – Prohibits excessive fines and excessive bail as well as cruel and unusual punishment.
9th – Asserts the existence of unenumerated rights retained by the people.
10th – Limits the powers of the federal government to those delegated to it by the Constitution.
11th – Provides immunity to states from suits from out of state citizens and foreigners not living within the states borders and lays the foundation for sovereign immunity.
12th – Revises procedures for presidential elections.
13th – Abolishes slavery and involuntary servitude except as punishment for a crime.
14th – Defines citizenship and contains the privleges or immunities claus, the due process claus, the equal protection claus and deals with past civil war issues.
15th – Prohibits the denial of suffrage based on race, color or previous conditions of servitude.
16th – Allows the federal government to collect income tax.
17th – Establishes the direct election of U.S. senators by popular vote.
18th – Establishes prohibition of alcohol. (Repealed by the 21st amendment).
19th – Establishes women’s suffrage.
20th – Fixes the date of term commencements as January 3rd for congress and January 20th for the president.
21st – Repeals the 18th amendment.
22nd – Limits the president to two terms or a maximum of 10 years.
23rd – Provides for the representation of Washington D.C. in the electoral college.
24th – Prohibits the revocation of voting rights due to non payment of poll taxes.
25th – Codifies the Tyler precedent defining the terms of presedential succession.
26th – Establishes the official minimum voting age to be 18 years old.
27th – Prevents laws affecting congressional salary from taking effect until the beginning of the next session of congress.